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Volume 1, Issue 3 (2021) –

Cover Picture: Magnetism and magnetic monopoles are among the most classical issues in physics. Conventional magnets are generally composed of rigid materials and may face challenges in extreme situations. Here, as an alternative to rigid magnets, we propose, for the first time, the generation of fluidic endogenous magnetism and construct a magnetic monopole through tuning with a liquid metal machine. Based on theoretical interpretation and conceptual experimental observations, we illustrate that when liquid metals, such as gallium alloy, in a solution rotate under electrical actuation, they form an endogenous magnetic field inside. This explains the phenomenon where two such discrete metal droplets can easily fuse together, indicating their reciprocal attraction via the N and S poles. Furthermore, we reveal that a self-fueled liquid metal motor also runs as an endogenous fluidic magnet owing to the electromagnetic homology. When aluminum is added to liquid gallium in solution, it forms a spin motor and dynamically variable charge distribution that produces endogenous magnetism inside. This explains the common phenomena where reflective collision and attractive fusion between running liquid metal motors occur, which are partially caused by the dynamic adjustment of their N and S polarities, respectively. On this basis, more experimental approaches capable of generating dynamic electrical fields also work for the same target. Finally, we propose that such a fluidic endogenous magnet could lead to a magnetic monopole and four technical routes to realize this are suggested. The first involves matching the interior flow of liquid metal machines. The second is the superposition between an external electric effect and the magnetic field. The third route involves composite construction between magnetic particles and a liquid metal spin motor. Finally, chemical methods, such as via galvanic cell reactions, are proposed. Overall, the present theory and identified experimental evidence illustrate the role of a liquid metal machine as a fluidic endogenous magnet and highlight promising methods for the realization of magnetic monopoles. A group of unconventional magnetoelectric devices and applications could therefore be possible in the near future.
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